Propolis Capsule Supplements
Capsule Supplements. Propolis, generally known as the “bee glue,” is a resinous mixture that honey bees produce by mixing their saliva containing certain enzymes and beeswax with exudate gathered mainly from leaf and flower buds, stems, and bark cracks of numerous species of trees. The word propolis is derived from two Greek words pro and polis, which mean “defense” and “city” or “community,” respectively. Bees use it mainly as a sealant and a disinfecting material.
Royal Jelly Capsule Supplements
Royal jelly is a secretion from mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands of young bees of the Apis mellifera species. This is a white or yellowish cream substance that makes food for young bee larvae (but no longer than three days, and then they are fed with a mixture of pollen, nectar, and honey), and the only food for the queen in both the larval and adult stages. This difference in the way of feeding is considered as the main factor responsible for the differentiation in the development of bee workers and the queen. In comparison to the workers’ food, the royal jelly contains less water and four times more sugars, more proteins, and different concentrations of some mineral salts.
Bee Pollen Capsule Supplements
Bee pollen is produced from plant flower pollen, which is collected by bees and mixed with nectar or the salivary gland secretion of the insects. In such form, it is transported, placed on the hind legs, to hives. Then flightless bees mix it with their saliva and pack into honeycombs, covered with a mixture of wax and honey. Under such conditions, the anaerobic fermentation proceeds with the formation of lactic acid, serving as a preservative. The substance, produced in this way, makes a source of nutrients for both adult bees and larvae. The beekeepers collect bee pollen using traps that enable to separate pellets from insects’ legs.
Pollen food energy is rather high; for instance, bee pollen produced by Apis mellifera, collected in Thailand and containing mainly corn pollen, showed its value to be as much as 397.16 kcal/100 g. In 22 samples of bee pollens collected in Portugal, the obtained values ranged from 396.4 to 411.1 kcal/100 g. It is even named “only perfectly complete food” or “the life-giving dust”.